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Paul Berg, M.D.While hair loss treatment has caused significant buy propecia walgreens illness and concern for millions of Americans and residents across the globe, experts at MidMichigan Health remind us not to lose sight of another potentially lethal propecia - Influenza.Influenza is a seasonal propecia that impacts the U.S. Population each year between late fall and early spring. Since 2015, buy propecia walgreens influenza has caused between 280,000 to 810,000 hospitalizations each year in the U.S., and 23,000 to 61,000 Americans have died from the propecia.

Fortunately, influenza is a preventable illness because of the annual flu treatment. However, only buy propecia walgreens about half of the U.S. Population receives the flu treatment each year.

Paul Berg M.D., president, MidMichigan Physicians Group buy propecia walgreens. Courtney Pearson, M.D., infectious disease specialist, MidMichigan Physicians Group, and Lydia Watson, M.D., senior vice president and chief medical officer, MidMichigan Health, answer some of the common questions about the flu treatment:Courtney Pearson, M.D.How does the flu treatment work?. The flu buy propecia walgreens treatment works by causing antibodies to form in the human body.

These antibodies provide protection against if that individual is later exposed to the actual propecia. treatments in buy propecia walgreens the U.S. Protect against three (“trivalent”) or four (“quadrivalent”) different strains of the flu propecia.

Once the flu treatment is administered, buy propecia walgreens it takes about two weeks for the body to generate the protective antibodies. These antibodies then provide protection for several months following the vaccination. The best time to receive the flu vaccination is in the fall, prior to the buy propecia walgreens arrival of the seasonal propecia.

Most medical providers begin administering the treatment in September but will continue to administer for the duration of the flu season. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that people get a flu treatment by the end of October.Who should be vaccinated?. With rare exception, every buy propecia walgreens human older than 6 months of age should receive the flu treatment each year.

Some people may not be candidates for certain treatment types, dependent on factors such as age, allergy history, or underlying medical conditions, so these individuals should check with their medical provider to discuss which treatment may be best for them. However, the most important fact to remember is to receive the treatment each year.Lydia Watson, M.D.Does the flu buy propecia walgreens treatment really work?. Yes.

The treatment is effective, though the effectiveness can vary based on certain buy propecia walgreens factors. The protection from the treatment varies from season to season dependent on the “match” between the treatment and the actual propeciaes circulating in the community. An individual’s health buy propecia walgreens status can also play a role in the effectiveness of the treatment.

In general, the treatment is most effective in young, healthy adults and older children. Older adults may not mount as robust an antibody response to buy propecia walgreens the treatment. Even though it is not perfect, the flu treatment remains a very helpful tool in preventing serious illness from influenza.

Here are some statistics to highlight the benefits of the flu treatment:In buy propecia walgreens the 2018-2019 flu season, the treatment prevented an estimated 4.4 million illnesses, 2.3 million flu-related medical visits, 58,000 flu-related hospitalizations, and 3,500 flu-related deaths. It is estimated that receiving the flu treatment reduces a person’s risk of having to go to the doctor with flu by 40-60 percent. A 2018 study showed that, from 2012 to 2015, the flu treatment among adults reduced the buy propecia walgreens risk of being admitted to an ICU with flu by 82 percent.A 2017 study showed that flu vaccination significantly reduces a child’s risk of dying from influenza.Flu vaccination is very beneficial for those with underlying medical conditions, as it has been shown to reduce rates of cardiac events in those with heart disease, and reduce hospitalization rates for those with COPD, chronic lung disease, or diabetes.

Flu vaccination is beneficial for those that are pregnant, as it reduces the risk of serious flu-related lung s by 50 percent. It is also beneficial for the infant, who will have circulating antibodies protecting them from illness for several months after birth. Why do buy propecia walgreens some people get sick with the seasonal influenza propecia even though they received the treatment?.

It’s possible that some people get sick with the seasonal propecia because they were exposed to the propecia within two weeks of receiving the treatment. It takes up to two weeks to develop the antibodies once vaccinated, so an exposure to the real propecia buy propecia walgreens during this window could still result in illness. Another reason may be that the person was exposed to a propecia that was not in the seasonal treatment.

There are many different strains of the influenza propecia that buy propecia walgreens circulate each year. The flu treatment is designed to protect against three or four of the most common strains that the research suggests will be circulating in the given year.In addition, it’s possible that the person simply did not develop a good immune response to the treatment. Some individuals, such as older adults or those with underlying health conditions, don’t develop a strong response to the buy propecia walgreens treatment.

For this reason it is important that all individuals get vaccinated. The more young, healthy people that buy propecia walgreens are vaccinated, the less likelihood that they will spread the propecia to more vulnerable individuals.Can the flu treatment give me the flu?. No.

The flu buy propecia walgreens treatment cannot cause flu illness. Flu treatments that are administered with a needle (flu shots) are currently made two ways. The treatment is either flu propeciaes that have been killed (inactivated) and are therefore not infectious, or they are made with proteins from a flu propecia (recombinant treatments) and cannot cause illness.

Nasal spray buy propecia walgreens influenza treatments are made with attenuated (weakened) live flu propeciaes, and also cannot cause flu illness. The weakened propeciaes used in the nasal spray treatments are cold-adapted, which means that they are designed to only cause mild at the cooler temperatures found within the nose. The propeciaes cannot infect the lungs or other buy propecia walgreens areas where warmer temperatures exist.What about side effects?.

The flu treatments can have some side effects. Possible minor side effects include soreness or redness at the injection site, headaches, fever, buy propecia walgreens muscle aches, nausea, or fatigue. Most individuals do not have these side effects.

For those buy propecia walgreens that do, the side effects are usually mild and short-lived. As with any medicine, there is the remote chance that people could have a serious allergic reaction or complication. This is very rare.Shouldn’t we be more focused on buy propecia walgreens hair loss treatment than influenza?.

We certainly need to keep our focus on hair loss treatment, but one way to protect our valuable health care resources is to reduce the chances of other serious s like influenza. Ensuring that all health care buy propecia walgreens workers and community members receive the flu treatment is a great strategy to reduce the influenza disease burden in our communities. Let’s all get vaccinated for the flu, protect ourselves and our resources from that lethal propecia, so we can focus on the risks that hair loss treatment will present this coming fall and winter.How can you tell the difference between the flu and hair loss treatment symptoms?.

It’s going to buy propecia walgreens be difficult to tell the difference between the flu and hair loss treatment symptoms since both illnesses produce respiratory symptoms. In addition, it’s possible to have both s at the same time. Testing needs to be done to determine if symptoms are due to flu or hair loss treatment.Those interested in more information on the flu treatment may visit www.cdc.gov/flu/prevent/keyfacts.htm.

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In the propecia 5mg uk first half of the 1950s, with no cure and no treatment, more than 200,000 Americans were disabled by the poliopropecia. The propecia was second only to the atomic bomb as to what Americans feared most. Then, on April 12, 1955, public health officials at the University of Michigan announced that a “safe, effective, and potent” treatment had been found. This set off a national celebration that recalled the end propecia 5mg uk of World War II.

Church bells rang, car horns honked, people wept with relief. President Eisenhower invited the treatment’s inventor, Jonas Salk, to the White House. In a Rose Garden ceremony, the former Supreme Allied Commander told the scientist in a trembling voice, “I should like to say to you that when I think of the countless thousands of American parents and grandparents who are hereafter to be spared the agonizing fears of the annual epidemic of poliomyelitis, when I think of all the agony that these people will be spared seeing their loved ones suffering in bed, I must say to you I propecia 5mg uk have no words in which adequately to express the thanks of myself and all the people I know—all 164 million Americans, to say nothing of all the people in the world that will profit from your discovery.” But, alas, not everyone joined the party and expressed such gratitude. One group in particular did not welcome the treatment as a breakthrough.

Chiropractors actively opposed the vaccination campaign that followed Salk’s triumph. Many practitioners dismissed the role of contagious pathogens and adhered propecia 5mg uk to the founding principle of chiropractic that all disease originated in the spine. Just a few years after the introduction of the treatment, as the number of polio cases was declining rapidly, an article in the Journal of the National Chiropractic Association asked, “Has the Test Tube Fight Against Polio Failed?. € It recommended that, rather than take the treatment, once stricken, “Chiropractic adjustments should be given of the entire spine during the first three days of polio.” Opposition to the polio treatment and to vaccination in general continued in the ranks such that even four decades later, long after polio had been eradicated from the United States, as many as one third of chiropractors still believed that there was no scientific proof that vaccination prevents any disease, including polio.

That belief and resistance continues to this day, with some chiropractors campaigning propecia 5mg uk against state vaccination mandates. I was shocked when I first learned about chiropractors’ opposition to the polio treatment. The treatment is widely viewed as one of medicine’s greatest success stories. Why would propecia 5mg uk anyone have opposed it?.

My shock turned into excitement, however, when I began to recognize the chiropractors’ pattern of arguments was uncannily similar to those I was familiar with from creationists who deny evolutionary science. And once I perceived those parallels, my excitement became an epiphany when I realized that the same general pattern of arguments—a denialist playbook—has been deployed to reject other scientific consensuses from the health effects of tobacco to the existence and causes of climate change. The same playbook is now being used to deny facts concerning the propecia 5mg uk hair loss treatment propecia. In brief, the six principal plays in the denialist playbook are.

Doubt the ScienceQuestion Scientists’ Motives and IntegrityMagnify Disagreements among Scientists and Cite Gadflies as AuthoritiesExaggerate Potential HarmAppeal to Personal FreedomReject Whatever Would Repudiate A Key Philosophy The purpose of the denialism playbook is to advance rhetorical arguments that give the appearance of legitimate debate when there is none. My purpose here is to penetrate that rhetorical fog, and to show that these are the predictable tactics propecia 5mg uk of those clinging to an untenable position. If we hope to find any cure for (or treatment against) science denialism, scientists, journalists and the public need to be able recognize, understand and anticipate these plays. To illustrate how the playbook works—and sadly, it is very effective –I will break down the chiropractor and creationist versions, which have endured for many decades in spite of overwhelming evidence, and point out parallels to the hair loss rhetoric.

THE PLAYBOOK propecia 5mg uk 1. Doubt the Science The first tactic of denialism is to raise objections to scientific evidence or interpretations. This may take the form of seemingly legitimate specific arguments against a scientific claim. For example, propecia 5mg uk chiropractors sought other explanations besides treatment efficacy to account for the decline of infectious diseases.

€œThe Center for Disease Control statistics make it clear that the majority of diseases that are now routinely vaccinated against were disappearing before either the cause was discovered or the treatment developed,” stated a 1995 letter to the editor of Dynamic Chiropractic magazine. In polio’s case, this argument does not hold up against the facts that. (a) the disease was surging in the 1950s propecia 5mg uk. (b) the treatment was proven effective in a massive double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

And (c) s declined precipitously after the introduction of the treatment. Alternatively, some propecia 5mg uk statements are blanket arguments against an entire scientific discipline. For example, Henry Morris, whose 1961 book The Genesis Flood is credited with reviving the creationism movement, alleged. €œSince there is no real scientific evidence that evolution is occurring at present or ever occurred in the past, it is reasonable to conclude that evolution is not a fact of science, as many claim.

In fact, it is not even science at all, but an propecia 5mg uk arbitrary system built upon faith in universal naturalism.” 2. Question Scientists’ Motives and Integrity As a growing body of consistent evidence can be hard to explain away, one fallback is to impugn the source. In the vaccination arena, this often takes the form of alleging financial conflicts of interest on the part of scientists, greed on the part of manufacturers, and complicity of government officials. €œIt appears that the scientific foundation propecia 5mg uk on which these treatments have been erected is fragile enough that only compulsory laws, expensive public relations efforts, outrageous propaganda, and expensive advertising must ensue for compliance to be maintained,” wrote one author in American Chiropractor.

Salk, by the way, filed no patent. In the evolution arena, scientists are often accused of being part of a conspiracy to undermine religion through educational systems. Kenneth Cumming, of the Institute for Creation Research, objected to propecia 5mg uk a PBS series on evolution by drawing a parallel to the 9/11 attackers. €œAmerica is being attacked from within through its public schools by a militant religious movement of philosophical naturalists (i.e., atheists) under the guise of secular Darwinism.

Both desire to alter the life and thinking of our nation.” One noteworthy counter to such assertions is the Clergy Letter Project, which has gained the support of more than 15,000 Christian clergy for the teaching of evolution. 3. Magnify Disagreements among Scientists and Cite Gadflies as Authorities In all scientific arenas, there is honest disagreement about the interpretation of evidence. However, these differences are deliberately inflated by denialists to imply a lack of consensus on more fundamental points, while often propounding the contradictory views of a few unqualified outliers.

An example of the latter is how some chiropractors have seized on the anti-vaccination stance of one critic, Viera Scheibner. Her claim that there is no evidence for treatment efficacy or safety is cited repeatedly, while overlooking the fact that her training and expertise is in geology, not medicine. In the evolution arena, differences of interpretation among scientists are relished by antievolution voices. For example, the initial discovery of a new fossil hominid usually elicits some different interpretations and expressions of uncertainty in the scientific community.

Creationists often mischaracterize these normal dynamics of scientific discourse as “skepticism” over the significance of such finds so as to discount them. By overblowing legitimate disagreements and propounding “alternatives” to evolution, denialists often make appeals to “teach the controversy,” when no such controversy exists in the scientific community. Different interpretations of a fossil do not negate the discomfiting evidence for the antiquity of human ancestors. Antievolution leaders in the U.S.

Also include a small number of scholars whose credentials are in other disciplines. For example, the abovementioned Henry Morris was an engineer, not a biologist. Phillip E. Johnson, whose book Darwin on Trial inspired many adherents to the intelligent design movement, was a law professor with no formal training in biology.

A lack of credentials or status within the scientific community is often seen not as a liability but as a virtue. Scientists Pascal Diethelm and Martin McKee note, “Denialists are usually not deterred by the extreme isolation of their theories, but rather see it as the indication of their intellectual courage against the dominant orthodoxy and the accompanying political correctness, often comparing themselves to Galileo.” 4. Exaggerate Potential Harm When the evidence contradicts a position, another recourse is to try to incite fear. No treatment or medicine is 100 percent safe, without any risk of side effects.

Chiropractors have long emphasized the potential side effects of treatments, for example in a statement in Dynamic Chiropractic offering a litant of possible effects. €œdeath, encephalopathy, demyelinating diseases, brachial neuritis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, s generated by treatment agents, anaphylaxis, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, seizure disorder, optic neuritis, arthritis,” and so on. However, they generally fail to acknowledge the serious consequences of s that would be prevented by vaccination. But what harm could arise from knowing a bit about evolution?.

Well, Hitler, of course!. “Of the many factors that produced the Nazi Holocaust and World War II,” wrote one critic in the Journal of Creation, “one of the most important was Darwin’s notion that evolutionary progress occurs mainly as a result of the elimination of the weak in the struggle for survival.” It is an oft-repeated argument that has no bearing of course on the veracity of Darwin’s theory. Vaccination foes have lobbed similar accusations, likening physicians who administer treatments to Nazi doctors and alleging that treatments violate the 1947 Nuremberg Code of medical ethics. 5.

Appeal to Personal Freedom If fear is not persuasive, there is another fallback position that resonates strongly with Americans. The freedom of choice. The American Chiropractic Association leaned on this cherished notion when it established its official vaccination policy. €œSince the scientific community acknowledges that the use of treatments is not without risk, the American Chiropractic Association supports each individual’s right to freedom of choice in his/her own health care based on an informed awareness of the benefits and possible adverse effects of vaccination.

The ACA is supportive of a conscience clause or waiver in compulsory vaccination laws… providing an elective course of action regarding vaccination.” Likewise, the International Chiropractic Association “questions the wisdom of mass vaccination programs” and views compulsory programs as an infringement of “the individual’s right to freedom of choice.” Similarly, the teaching of evolution in public schools is viewed as an assault upon the religious freedom of those who oppose it. Those holding this view advocate for disclaimers on textbooks (“just a theory”), the teaching of “alternative” views of the history of life (Genesis or intelligent design), or the freedom to opt out of the evolution curriculum of biology classes. Notably, the U.S. Supreme Court has rejected challenges to compulsory vaccination partly on the grounds that individual belief cannot subordinate the safety of an entire community.

And U.S. Courts have repeatedly struck down attempts to subvert the teaching of evolution as religiously motivated and violations of the establishment clause of the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. 6.

Reject Whatever Would Repudiate a Key Philosophy Once the courts have spoken, and the scientific evidence grows to be overwhelming, one might think that denialists would be out of plays. But there is one last line of defense that reveals the nucleus of denial. It is not that some scientific claim is untrue. It is that it is unacceptable in light of some philosophical commitment.

The science must be summarily rejected. Chiropractic was founded in the early 20th century on the assertion that all disease has its origins in misalignments of the spine. €œChiropractors have found in every disease that is supposed to be contagious, a cause in the spine,” claimed Bartlett Joshua Palmer, the son of chiropractic founder Daniel David Palmer. Acceptance of germ theory and vaccination would repudiate the founding premise of the profession that all disease stems from vertebral misalignments.

Therefore, that premise cannot be questioned. With respect to evolution, Henry Morris made it plain. €œWhen science and the Bible differ, science has obviously misinterpreted its data.” Any credence granted to evolutionary science is a threat to a worldview based on interpretation of the Bible. David Cloud, a publisher of Bible study materials argues.

€œIf the Bible does not mean what it says, there is no way to know what it does mean. Historian of science and author Naomi Oreskes has coined a term for this stance. €œimplicatory denial”—the rejection of scientific findings because we don’t like their implications. As these positions are reinforced by family or community, they harden into part of one’s identity.

€œIn this way, cultural identity starts to override facts,” Norwegian climate psychologist Per Espen Stoknes has said. €œAnd my identity trumps truth any day.” Psychologists Elliot Aronson and Carol Tavris write in the Atlantic. €œ[W]hen people feel a strong connection to a political party, leader, ideology, or belief, they are more likely to let that allegiance do their thinking for them and distort or ignore the evidence that challenges those loyalties.” The denialist playbook is now erupting around the hair loss. Although hair loss treatment is new, the reactions to public health measures, scientific claims, and expert advice are not.

Attitudes and behaviors concerning the threat posed by the hair loss (doubting the science), the efficacy of lockdowns and mask wearing (freedoms being eroded) and alternative treatments (gadflies over experts) are being driven as much or more by rhetoric than by evidence. Polls indicate that despite the devastating health and economic impacts of the propecia, with respect to a potential treatment we are nowhere near as united as Americans were in 1955. But as epidemiologist Michael Osterholm noted in June, “Eventually there won't be any blue states or red states. There won't be any blue cities or red rural areas.

It'll all be hair loss treatment colored.” Now, sadly, there is no denying that.PANAMA Vampire bats monitored at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute have fewer interactions with family and friends when ill, biologists say. But they do not seem to stay apart intentionally—instead sick bats are simply too lethargic to call out to or groom one another. CANADA The last fully intact ice shelf in Canada collapsed into the Arctic Ocean this summer. Located in the territory of Nunavut, the Milne Ice Shelf lost 80 square kilometers of ice—40 percent of its area—in just two days.

CHILE Living 6,700 meters above sea level, a yellow-rumped leafeared mouse found at the summit of the dormant volcano Llullaillaco is the highest-dwelling mammal ever documented. It remains unclear how the animal survives the oxygen scarcity and freezing temperatures at this elevation. RUSSIA An analysis of ancient woolly rhino DNA from Siberia revealed that the population size was stable for thousands of years before the mammal's extinction 14,000 years ago, suggesting that a warming climate—not hunting by humans—most likely triggered its demise. ETHIOPIA Paleoanthropologists unearthed a 1.4-million-year old hand ax made from a hippo's leg bone.

Together with recently discovered stone tools, the ax indicates that Homo erectus had a diverse tool kit several hundred thousand years earlier than scientists had suspected. ANTARCTICA Contrary to researchers' expectations, methane-eating microbes failed to rapidly contain the first methane leak detected on the Antarctic seafloor. The finding means more of the potent greenhouse gas may have been pouring into the atmosphere than previously thought.With black holes, what you see is not what you get. The ring of light visible around a black hole’s silhouette originates from a radius of about 5GM/c2, where G is Newton’s constant, M is the black hole mass and c is the speed of light.

This ring is larger than the event horizon of a nonspinning black hole by a factor of 2.5—or up to five with the addition of spin. And so, truth in advertising requires me to tell you the Event Horizon Telescope did not actually image the event horizon of the supermassive black hole in the galaxy M87, but rather the light from much farther out. For a distant observer, the difference between the light ring and the horizon is academic, but for an astronaut en route into the black hole, the difference is existential. Entering the ultimate prison walls associated with the horizon implies a death sentence, with no opportunity for sharing the experience with the outside world.

After less than a day, the astronaut’s body will reach the singularity and be torn apart by gravitational tidal force. In 1939, Albert Einstein wrote a paper in Annals of Mathematics doubting that black holes exist in nature. Now, black holes are in vogue—so much so that the 2020 Nobel prize in physics was awarded to three scientists who have studied them. This gave me reason to celebrate, as the founding director of Harvard’s Black Hole Initiative, which brings together astronomers, physicists, mathematicians and philosophers, all dedicated to research on black holes.

Karl Schwarzschild would have been delighted to join our celebration. Unfortunately, he died on the German-Russian front during World War I over a century ago, just half a year after deriving the nonspinning black hole solution to Einstein’s equations. One of the recipients of the 2020 Nobel, Roger Penrose, demonstrated that black holes are a robust prediction of Einstein’s general theory of relativity, and in doing so invented a new mathematical tool to depict spacetimes, called Penrose diagrams. He also showed that it is possible to extract energy from a spinning black hole as if it were a flywheel, through the so-called Penrose process.

His cosmic censorship hypothesis protects our ability to make predictions about the future of universe from the pathology of black hole singularities, where the spacetime curvature blows up and Einstein's theory breaks down. This conjecture asserts that all singularities are hidden behind an event horizon so that matter approaching them has no causal effect on what happens outside the horizon. Just as they say about Las Vegas, "whatever happens inside the horizon, stays inside the horizon." The two other Nobel laureates in physics this year, Reinhard Genzel and Andrea Ghez, demonstrated that a black hole weighing four million suns resides at the center of our own Milky Way galaxy. The discovery of quasars more than half a century ago implied that supermassive black holes form generically at the centers of galaxies.

By monitoring the motion of massive stars around the center of our own galaxy in real time, as if they were planets orbiting a star, they demonstrated the existence of a black hole there. Prior to their work, it was unclear whether a black hole is associated with the stationary radio source Sagittarius A*. Not only did they measure the mass of the black hole, but they also tested Einstein's theory of gravity. The stars they discovered move in two orbital planes.

In a new paper with Giacomo Fragione, we showed that the black hole spin must therefore be small, or else it would blur the strict orbital planes of the stars over their lifetime. The teams led by Genzel and Ghez were engaged in intense competition, elevating their efforts to great heights. This was a wonderful demonstration of how rivalry promotes good science. One of the stars traced by Genzel and Ghez, labeled S2, completes an orbit around the galactic center every 16 years.

The related advice I gave astronomy students is to focus their Ph.D. Project on a source like S2 that evolves over a timescale of a decade or two, so that they will continue to learn new things about the source throughout their careers. If Stephen Hawking was alive, he would have been a worthy contender for this year's Nobel prize, since his work paralleled that of Penrose on classical general relativity, with the addition of the quantum mechanical aspect of black hole evaporation. Black holes are simple and complex at the same time.

They are described by mass, charge and spin, yet as Jacob Bekenstein first recognized, they carry a huge entropy. It would be remarkable to have a field trip to the nearest black hole and study it up close. The journey would be practical over a human lifetime if there is one in the solar system. Even though black holes are the darkest objects when left on their own, they appear as the brightest sources of light when dressed up with a shroud of matter, making them perfect symbols of Halloween.

Outflows from supermassive black holes shape the evolution of entire galaxies. These beasts stop growing only because they become so energetic that they shove their food off their dining table. One gets a lot more out of black holes than one might expect based on their small size. No wonder we never get tired of thinking and talking about them.Dear Mr.

President-Elect In the last four years, federally funded science agencies were unmade and remade. They were given new marching orders. The mandate of providing the nation with unbiased scientific advice was replaced by a new mandate—that science is subordinate to the political goals and ego of President Trump. The consequences of this new mandate are serious and far-reaching.

The Environmental Protection Agency became the Environmental Pollution Agency, rolling back protections on clean air and clean water, and providing regulatory relief to President Trump’s campaign contributors from the fossil fuel industry. Scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration were censured for challenging President Trump’s incorrect forecast of the path of a major hurricane. Their sin?. Failing to adhere to the prime directive that the president is never wrong.

At multiple federal agencies, climate science became “the subject that must not be named”—and the subject that should not be studied. And most recently, federally funded scientists unwilling to support the president’s incorrect narrative of a country “rounding the corner” on hair loss treatment were publicly ridiculed and dismissed as “idiots.” I was a federally funded climate scientist until September 2020, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research. I used pattern recognition methods to identify human “fingerprints” on climate..

I worked with colleagues at Lawrence Livermore National Lab and at research institutes and universities around the world. Together, we found human fingerprints in the temperatures of the atmosphere, the land surface and the world’s oceans. We detected signs of human influence on ocean heat content and salinity, snowpack depth, the timing of streamflow from snow-fed river basins, atmospheric moisture, drought behavior and clouds. We learned that human fingerprints on climate are not an isolated phenomenon.

They are ubiquitous, present in dozens of independently monitored climate records. The Department of Energy supported climate fingerprint research for over 25 years. The research survived transitions between Democratic and Republican administrations. It withstood shifts in the composition of the Senate and Congress.

But it did not survive a president who has falsely dismissed climate change as a hoax and a Chinese conspiracy. It did not survive a president who falsely asserts that science does not know the causes of climate change. It did not survive a very stable genius who considers his expertise superior to that of all scientific experts. Nor did climate fingerprinting survive the changing of the guard at a remade Department of Energy—new leadership that walked away from the same research the DOE had funded.

This seismic shift in political climate led to apprehension and even fear among my younger scientific colleagues. Some worried about green-card applications. Could their application be adversely affected by co-authoring a paper that rebutted incorrect scientific statements made by former EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt?. Others worried about funding.

Could their DOE support be cut if we continued to engage in climate fingerprint research?. Should we simply hide and self-censor?. Should we avoid any research areas viewed with disfavor by the president of the United States?. Our climate fingerprint group did not self-censor.

Throughout the tenure of the Trump administration, we continued to study the nature and causes of climate change—research that is in the best interests of the citizens of this nation and this planet. We continued to believe that U.S. National Laboratories are an appropriate place to perform such research. And we continued to report on our findings.

To speak science to power. We did not hide. Over the last four years, Americans have had ample opportunity to observe the consequences of willful scientific ignorance. Ignorance is toxic and fatal.

It is a potent vector for the spread of the hair loss treatment propecia. It hampers effective action on climate change, burdening our children with present and future climate disruption they did nothing to incur. Ignorance isolates us from the rest of the world. The United States is the world’s pariah nation, unwilling to accept science, unwilling to participate in international efforts to control a global propecia, and unwilling to take part in international efforts to reduce emissions of heat-trapping greenhouse gases.

Our peers in the free world view us with pity and concern. Mr. Biden, you will face two immediate, formidable challenges. The first is “bending the curve” of hair loss treatment s.

The second is to bend the curve of greenhouse gas emissions towards a more sustainable pathway—to attain an emissions curve that reduces the risks of significant climate disruption. An additional important challenge is to restore public trust in science and scientists. You must rebuild public trust in the scientific impartiality of the Environmental Protection Agency, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Department of Energy, the Centers for Disease Control and many other federal agencies with scientific remits. You must convince the women and men working in these agencies that their new prime directive is not political loyalty to one person—the new directive is “get the science right.” You will have to inspire the disillusioned and disheartened, reverse the loss of critical expertise at key scientific agencies and make public service at these agencies an aspirational goal for the next generation of young scientists.

In achieving this restoration of trust, you can count on the help of many thousands of U.S. Scientists. I was educated in a British Army school in Germany. My education was heavy on poetry.

One poem that stuck in the sieve of my memory was by Thomas Hardy. It describes a desolate winter landscape at the tail end of the 19th century. In the cold, inhospitable countryside, against a backdrop of political instability in Europe, a solitary thrush is singing. The poem captures the disconnect between the bleak physical setting, the portents of conflict, and the clear, beautiful birdsong.

So little cause for carolings Of such ecstatic sound Was written on terrestrial things Afar or nigh around, That I could think there trembled through His happy good-night air Some blessed Hope, whereof he knew And I was unaware. Today, we live in similarly ominous times. We wish for signs that the darkness of the last four years is lifting—for singing in the wilderness. Our “blessed hope” for a better future is invested in you.Strata.

William Smith’s Geological Mapsedited by the Oxford University Museum of Natural HistoryUniversity of Chicago Press, 2020 ($65) Strata are the ribboned horizontal layers of minerals and sediment that underlie the topography of all the landmasses on the earth and have been revealed by erosion over hundreds of millions of years. Although the practice of mapping geologic layers had begun in the mid-17th century, the science of how strata formed was still nascent. By the late 1700s self-made land surveyor-cum-geologist William Smith brought new breadth and perspective to the study in his work for a mining and prospecting firm. Captured in the many maps and sketches in this stunning collection, the fossils he systematically tagged to particular geologic strata paved the way for a more holistic view of geology that enabled other researchers and industrialists to predict the geologic makeup of large regions.

Perhaps the culmination of this pioneering work is Smith’s Technicolor map of Britain’s geologic deposits, which he labeled with the colloquial names used by miners and quarrymen of the day. Red Marl colored in peach pink, London Clay in sky gray, Chalk in chartreuse. Smith was known to take long “walkings out” in the early morning with hammer and notebook in hand, absorbing the history of the planet, where so many others had merely passed by. Wild Thing.

Space Invadersby Laura KrantzFoxtopus Ink, 2020 (free podcast) “Are there other species out there, or are we an anomaly, something special?. € asks journalist Krantz during the opening of her podcast’s 10-episode second season. She interviews scientists involved in SETI—the search for extraterrestrial intelligence—and astronomers who recently observed the first known asteroid from beyond the solar system. She also talks to U.S.

Navy pilots who claim to have seen UFOs and people who believe they have encountered aliens and travels to Colorado’s UFO Watchtower, a popular spot for those hoping to sight an unidentified flying object. Through lively storytelling and compelling interviews, Krantz explores the science of how we might discover a new species. She also probes the philosophical questions the search raises and the cultural reasons the question fascinates us. €œWhat does it mean if we find something?.

And what does it mean if we don’t?. € —Clara Moskowitz Oliver Sacks. His Own LifeDocumentary directed by Ric Burns. Opening date.

September 23, 2020Check screenings at https://bit.ly/SeeOliverSacks Oliver Sacks was a painfully shy child who felt anguish after a brother developed schizophrenia and his mother called him an “abomination” when she learned he was gay. Fleeing to America for a medical residency, the London native indulged in prodigious amphetamine use and wondered one New Year’s Eve whether he would live another year. Burns’s documentary, made shortly before Sacks’s death from cancer in 2015, traces the blossoming of a brilliant but troubled outsider as he elevated patient case histories to a literary art form by ceaselessly posing the same question. What is it like to be you?.

Sacks put this query to people with autism, migraines, Tourette’s syndrome, agnosia.

Travel and business were sometimes curtailed buy propecia walgreens between places with outbreaks, and public health authorities imposed quarantines on healthy people who may have been exposed, in order to halt the spread of the disease. In the first half of the 1950s, with no cure and no treatment, more than 200,000 Americans were disabled by the poliopropecia. The propecia was second only to the atomic bomb as to what Americans feared most.

Then, on April 12, 1955, public health officials at the University of Michigan announced that a “safe, effective, and potent” treatment buy propecia walgreens had been found. This set off a national celebration that recalled the end of World War II. Church bells rang, car horns honked, people wept with relief.

President Eisenhower invited buy propecia walgreens the treatment’s inventor, Jonas Salk, to the White House. In a Rose Garden ceremony, the former Supreme Allied Commander told the scientist in a trembling voice, “I should like to say to you that when I think of the countless thousands of American parents and grandparents who are hereafter to be spared the agonizing fears of the annual epidemic of poliomyelitis, when I think of all the agony that these people will be spared seeing their loved ones suffering in bed, I must say to you I have no words in which adequately to express the thanks of myself and all the people I know—all 164 million Americans, to say nothing of all the people in the world that will profit from your discovery.” But, alas, not everyone joined the party and expressed such gratitude. One group in particular did not welcome the treatment as a breakthrough.

Chiropractors actively opposed the vaccination campaign buy propecia walgreens that followed Salk’s triumph. Many practitioners dismissed the role of contagious pathogens and adhered to the founding principle of chiropractic that all disease originated in the spine. Just a few years after the introduction of the treatment, as the number of polio cases was declining rapidly, an article in the Journal of the National Chiropractic Association asked, “Has the Test Tube Fight Against Polio Failed?.

€ It recommended that, rather than take the treatment, once stricken, “Chiropractic adjustments should be given of the entire spine during the first three days of polio.” Opposition to the polio treatment and to vaccination in general continued in the ranks such that even four decades later, long after polio had been eradicated from the United States, as many as one third of chiropractors buy propecia walgreens still believed that there was no scientific proof that vaccination prevents any disease, including polio. That belief and resistance continues to this day, with some chiropractors campaigning against state vaccination mandates. I was shocked when I first learned about chiropractors’ opposition to the polio treatment.

The treatment is widely viewed as one of medicine’s greatest buy propecia walgreens success stories. Why would anyone have opposed it?. My shock turned into excitement, however, when I began to recognize the chiropractors’ pattern of arguments was uncannily similar to those I was familiar with from creationists who deny evolutionary science.

And once buy propecia walgreens I perceived those parallels, my excitement became an epiphany when I realized that the same general pattern of arguments—a denialist playbook—has been deployed to reject other scientific consensuses from the health effects of tobacco to the existence and causes of climate change. The same playbook is now being used to deny facts concerning the hair loss treatment propecia. In brief, the six principal plays in the denialist playbook are.

Doubt the ScienceQuestion Scientists’ Motives and IntegrityMagnify Disagreements among Scientists buy propecia walgreens and Cite Gadflies as AuthoritiesExaggerate Potential HarmAppeal to Personal FreedomReject Whatever Would Repudiate A Key Philosophy The purpose of the denialism playbook is to advance rhetorical arguments that give the appearance of legitimate debate when there is none. My purpose here is to penetrate that rhetorical fog, and to show that these are the predictable tactics of those clinging to an untenable position. If we hope to find any cure for (or treatment against) science denialism, scientists, journalists and the public need to be able recognize, understand and anticipate these plays.

To illustrate how the playbook works—and sadly, it is very buy propecia walgreens effective –I will break down the chiropractor and creationist versions, which have endured for many decades in spite of overwhelming evidence, and point out parallels to the hair loss rhetoric. THE PLAYBOOK 1. Doubt the Science The first tactic of denialism is to raise objections to scientific evidence or interpretations.

This may buy propecia walgreens take the form of seemingly legitimate specific arguments against a scientific claim. For example, chiropractors sought other explanations besides treatment efficacy to account for the decline of infectious diseases. €œThe Center for Disease Control statistics make it clear that the majority of diseases that are now routinely vaccinated against were disappearing before either the cause was discovered or the treatment developed,” stated a 1995 letter to the editor of Dynamic Chiropractic magazine.

In polio’s case, this argument does buy propecia walgreens not hold up against the facts that. (a) the disease was surging in the 1950s. (b) the treatment was proven effective in a massive double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

And (c) s declined precipitously after the introduction of the treatment buy propecia walgreens. Alternatively, some statements are blanket arguments against an entire scientific discipline. For example, Henry Morris, whose 1961 book The Genesis Flood is credited with reviving the creationism movement, alleged.

€œSince there is no real scientific evidence that evolution is occurring buy propecia walgreens at present or ever occurred in the past, it is reasonable to conclude that evolution is not a fact of science, as many claim. In fact, it is not even science at all, but an arbitrary system built upon faith in universal naturalism.” 2. Question Scientists’ Motives and Integrity As a growing body of consistent evidence can be hard to explain away, one fallback is to impugn the source.

In the buy propecia walgreens vaccination arena, this often takes the form of alleging financial conflicts of interest on the part of scientists, greed on the part of manufacturers, and complicity of government officials. €œIt appears that the scientific foundation on which these treatments have been erected is fragile enough that only compulsory laws, expensive public relations efforts, outrageous propaganda, and expensive advertising must ensue for compliance to be maintained,” wrote one author in American Chiropractor. Salk, by the way, filed no patent.

In the evolution arena, scientists are often accused of being part of a conspiracy to undermine religion through educational buy propecia walgreens systems. Kenneth Cumming, of the Institute for Creation Research, objected to a PBS series on evolution by drawing a parallel to the 9/11 attackers. €œAmerica is being attacked from within through its public schools by a militant religious movement of philosophical naturalists (i.e., atheists) under the guise of secular Darwinism.

Both desire to alter the life and thinking of our nation.” One noteworthy counter buy propecia walgreens to such assertions is the Clergy Letter Project, which has gained the support of more than 15,000 Christian clergy for the teaching of evolution. 3. Magnify Disagreements among Scientists and Cite Gadflies as Authorities In all scientific arenas, there is honest disagreement about the interpretation of evidence.

However, these differences are deliberately inflated by denialists to imply a lack of consensus on more buy propecia walgreens fundamental points, while often propounding the contradictory views of a few unqualified outliers. An example of the latter is how some chiropractors have seized on the anti-vaccination stance of one critic, Viera Scheibner. Her claim that there is no evidence for treatment efficacy or safety is cited repeatedly, while overlooking the fact that her training and expertise is in geology, not medicine.

In the evolution arena, buy propecia walgreens differences of interpretation among scientists are relished by antievolution voices. For example, the initial discovery of a new fossil hominid usually elicits some different interpretations and expressions of uncertainty in the scientific community. Creationists often mischaracterize these normal dynamics of scientific discourse as “skepticism” over the significance of such finds so as to discount them.

By overblowing legitimate disagreements and propounding “alternatives” to evolution, denialists often make appeals to “teach the controversy,” buy propecia walgreens when no such controversy exists in the scientific community. Different interpretations of a fossil do not negate the discomfiting evidence for the antiquity of human ancestors. Antievolution leaders in the U.S.

Also include a buy propecia walgreens small number of scholars whose credentials are in other disciplines. For example, the abovementioned Henry Morris was an engineer, not a biologist. Phillip E.

Johnson, whose buy propecia walgreens book Darwin on Trial inspired many adherents to the intelligent design movement, was a law professor with no formal training in biology. A lack of credentials or status within the scientific community is often seen not as a liability but as a virtue. Scientists Pascal Diethelm and Martin McKee note, “Denialists are usually not deterred by the extreme isolation of their theories, but rather see it as the indication of their intellectual courage against the dominant orthodoxy and the accompanying political correctness, often comparing themselves to Galileo.” 4.

Exaggerate Potential Harm When the evidence contradicts a position, another recourse is buy propecia walgreens to try to incite fear. No treatment or medicine is 100 percent safe, without any risk of side effects. Chiropractors have long emphasized the potential side effects of treatments, for example in a statement in Dynamic Chiropractic offering a litant of possible effects.

€œdeath, encephalopathy, demyelinating diseases, brachial neuritis, buy propecia walgreens Guillain-Barré syndrome, s generated by treatment agents, anaphylaxis, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, seizure disorder, optic neuritis, arthritis,” and so on. However, they generally fail to acknowledge the serious consequences of s that would be prevented by vaccination. But what harm could arise from knowing a bit about evolution?.

Well, Hitler, of course! buy propecia walgreens. “Of the many factors that produced the Nazi Holocaust and World War II,” wrote one critic in the Journal of Creation, “one of the most important was Darwin’s notion that evolutionary progress occurs mainly as a result of the elimination of the weak in the struggle for survival.” It is an oft-repeated argument that has no bearing of course on the veracity of Darwin’s theory. Vaccination foes have lobbed similar accusations, likening physicians who administer treatments to Nazi doctors and alleging that treatments violate the 1947 Nuremberg Code of medical ethics.

5. Appeal to Personal Freedom If fear is not persuasive, there is another fallback position that resonates strongly with Americans. The freedom of choice.

The American Chiropractic Association leaned on this cherished notion when it established its official vaccination policy. €œSince the scientific community acknowledges that the use of treatments is not without risk, the American Chiropractic Association supports each individual’s right to freedom of choice in his/her own health care based on an informed awareness of the benefits and possible adverse effects of vaccination. The ACA is supportive of a conscience clause or waiver in compulsory vaccination laws… providing an elective course of action regarding vaccination.” Likewise, the International Chiropractic Association “questions the wisdom of mass vaccination programs” and views compulsory programs as an infringement of “the individual’s right to freedom of choice.” Similarly, the teaching of evolution in public schools is viewed as an assault upon the religious freedom of those who oppose it.

Those holding this view advocate for disclaimers on textbooks (“just a theory”), the teaching of “alternative” views of the history of life (Genesis or intelligent design), or the freedom to opt out of the evolution curriculum of biology classes. Notably, the U.S. Supreme Court has rejected challenges to compulsory vaccination partly on the grounds that individual belief cannot subordinate the safety of an entire community.

And U.S. Courts have repeatedly struck down attempts to subvert the teaching of evolution as religiously motivated and violations of the establishment clause of the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.

6. Reject Whatever Would Repudiate a Key Philosophy Once the courts have spoken, and the scientific evidence grows to be overwhelming, one might think that denialists would be out of plays. But there is one last line of defense that reveals the nucleus of denial.

It is not that some scientific claim is untrue. It is that it is unacceptable in light of some philosophical commitment. The science must be summarily rejected.

Chiropractic was founded in the early 20th century on the assertion that all disease has its origins in misalignments of the spine. €œChiropractors have found in every disease that is supposed to be contagious, a cause in the spine,” claimed Bartlett Joshua Palmer, the son of chiropractic founder Daniel David Palmer. Acceptance of germ theory and vaccination would repudiate the founding premise of the profession that all disease stems from vertebral misalignments.

Therefore, that premise cannot be questioned. With respect to evolution, Henry Morris made it plain. €œWhen science and the Bible differ, science has obviously misinterpreted its data.” Any credence granted to evolutionary science is a threat to a worldview based on interpretation of the Bible.

David Cloud, a publisher of Bible study materials argues. €œIf the Bible does not mean what it says, there is no way to know what it does mean. Historian of science and author Naomi Oreskes has coined a term for this stance.

€œimplicatory denial”—the rejection of scientific findings because we don’t like their implications. As these positions are reinforced by family or community, they harden into part of one’s identity. €œIn this way, cultural identity starts to override facts,” Norwegian climate psychologist Per Espen Stoknes has said.

€œAnd my identity trumps truth any day.” Psychologists Elliot Aronson and Carol Tavris write in the Atlantic. €œ[W]hen people feel a strong connection to a political party, leader, ideology, or belief, they are more likely to let that allegiance do their thinking for them and distort or ignore the evidence that challenges those loyalties.” The denialist playbook is now erupting around the hair loss. Although hair loss treatment is new, the reactions to public health measures, scientific claims, and expert advice are not.

Attitudes and behaviors concerning the threat posed by the hair loss (doubting the science), the efficacy of lockdowns and mask wearing (freedoms being eroded) and alternative treatments (gadflies over experts) are being driven as much or more by rhetoric than by evidence. Polls indicate that despite the devastating health and economic impacts of the propecia, with respect to a potential treatment we are nowhere near as united as Americans were in 1955. But as epidemiologist Michael Osterholm noted in June, “Eventually there won't be any blue states or red states.

There won't be any blue cities or red rural areas. It'll all be hair loss treatment colored.” Now, sadly, there is no denying that.PANAMA Vampire bats monitored at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute have fewer interactions with family and friends when ill, biologists say. But they do not seem to stay apart intentionally—instead sick bats are simply too lethargic to call out to or groom one another.

CANADA The last fully intact ice shelf in Canada collapsed into the Arctic Ocean this summer. Located in the territory of Nunavut, the Milne Ice Shelf lost 80 square kilometers of ice—40 percent of its area—in just two days. CHILE Living 6,700 meters above sea level, a yellow-rumped leafeared mouse found at the summit of the dormant volcano Llullaillaco is the highest-dwelling mammal ever documented.

It remains unclear how the animal survives the oxygen scarcity and freezing temperatures at this elevation. RUSSIA An analysis of ancient woolly rhino DNA from Siberia revealed that the population size was stable for thousands of years before the mammal's extinction 14,000 years ago, suggesting that a warming climate—not hunting by humans—most likely triggered its demise. ETHIOPIA Paleoanthropologists unearthed a 1.4-million-year old hand ax made from a hippo's leg bone.

Together with recently discovered stone tools, the ax indicates that Homo erectus had a diverse tool kit several hundred thousand years earlier than scientists had suspected. ANTARCTICA Contrary to researchers' expectations, methane-eating microbes failed to rapidly contain the first methane leak detected on the Antarctic seafloor. The finding means more of the potent greenhouse gas may have been pouring into the atmosphere than previously thought.With black holes, what you see is not what you get.

The ring of light visible around a black hole’s silhouette originates from a radius of about 5GM/c2, where G is Newton’s constant, M is the black hole mass and c is the speed of light. This ring is larger than the event horizon of a nonspinning black hole by a factor of 2.5—or up to five with the addition of spin. And so, truth in advertising requires me to tell you the Event Horizon Telescope did not actually image the event horizon of the supermassive black hole in the galaxy M87, but rather the light from much farther out.

For a distant observer, the difference between the light ring and the horizon is academic, but for an astronaut en route into the black hole, the difference is existential. Entering the ultimate prison walls associated with the horizon implies a death sentence, with no opportunity for sharing the experience with the outside world. After less than a day, the astronaut’s body will reach the singularity and be torn apart by gravitational tidal force.

In 1939, Albert Einstein wrote a paper in Annals of Mathematics doubting that black holes exist in nature. Now, black holes are in vogue—so much so that the 2020 Nobel prize in physics was awarded to three scientists who have studied them. This gave me reason to celebrate, as the founding director of Harvard’s Black Hole Initiative, which brings together astronomers, physicists, mathematicians and philosophers, all dedicated to research on black holes.

Karl Schwarzschild would have been delighted to join our celebration. Unfortunately, he died on the German-Russian front during World War I over a century ago, just half a year after deriving the nonspinning black hole solution to Einstein’s equations. One of the recipients of the 2020 Nobel, Roger Penrose, demonstrated that black holes are a robust prediction of Einstein’s general theory of relativity, and in doing so invented a new mathematical tool to depict spacetimes, called Penrose diagrams.

He also showed that it is possible to extract energy from a spinning black hole as if it were a flywheel, through the so-called Penrose process. His cosmic censorship hypothesis protects our ability to make predictions about the future of universe from the pathology of black hole singularities, where the spacetime curvature blows up and Einstein's theory breaks down. This conjecture asserts that all singularities are hidden behind an event horizon so that matter approaching them has no causal effect on what happens outside the horizon.

Just as they say about Las Vegas, "whatever happens inside the horizon, stays inside the horizon." The two other Nobel laureates in physics this year, Reinhard Genzel and Andrea Ghez, demonstrated that a black hole weighing four million suns resides at the center of our own Milky Way galaxy. The discovery of quasars more than half a century ago implied that supermassive black holes form generically at the centers of galaxies. By monitoring the motion of massive stars around the center of our own galaxy in real time, as if they were planets orbiting a star, they demonstrated the existence of a black hole there.

Prior to their work, it was unclear whether a black hole is associated with the stationary radio source Sagittarius A*. Not only did they measure the mass of the black hole, but they also tested Einstein's theory of gravity. The stars they discovered move in two orbital planes.

In a new paper with Giacomo Fragione, we showed that the black hole spin must therefore be small, or else it would blur the strict orbital planes of the stars over their lifetime. The teams led by Genzel and Ghez were engaged in intense competition, elevating their efforts to great heights. This was a wonderful demonstration of how rivalry promotes good science.

One of the stars traced by Genzel and Ghez, labeled S2, completes an orbit around the galactic center every 16 years. The related advice I gave astronomy students is to focus their Ph.D. Project on a source like S2 that evolves over a timescale of a decade or two, so that they will continue to learn new things about the source throughout their careers.

If Stephen Hawking was alive, he would have been a worthy contender for this year's Nobel prize, since his work paralleled that of Penrose on classical general relativity, with the addition of the quantum mechanical aspect of black hole evaporation. Black holes are simple and complex at the same time. They are described by mass, charge and spin, yet as Jacob Bekenstein first recognized, they carry a huge entropy.

It would be remarkable to have a field trip to the nearest black hole and study it up close. The journey would be practical over a human lifetime if there is one in the solar system. Even though black holes are the darkest objects when left on their own, they appear as the brightest sources of light when dressed up with a shroud of matter, making them perfect symbols of Halloween.

Outflows from supermassive black holes shape the evolution of entire galaxies. These beasts stop growing only because they become so energetic that they shove their food off their dining table. One gets a lot more out of black holes than one might expect based on their small size.

No wonder we never get tired of thinking and talking about them.Dear Mr. President-Elect In the last four years, federally funded science agencies were unmade and remade. They were given new marching orders.

The mandate of providing the nation with unbiased scientific advice was replaced by a new mandate—that science is subordinate to the political goals and ego of President Trump. The consequences of this new mandate are serious and far-reaching. The Environmental Protection Agency became the Environmental Pollution Agency, rolling back protections on clean air and clean water, and providing regulatory relief to President Trump’s campaign contributors from the fossil fuel industry.

Scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration were censured for challenging President Trump’s incorrect forecast of the path of a major hurricane. Their sin?. Failing to adhere to the prime directive that the president is never wrong.

At multiple federal agencies, climate science became “the subject that must not be named”—and the subject that should not be studied. And most recently, federally funded scientists unwilling to support the president’s incorrect narrative of a country “rounding the corner” on hair loss treatment were publicly ridiculed and dismissed as “idiots.” I was a federally funded climate scientist until September 2020, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research.

I used pattern recognition methods to identify human “fingerprints” on climate.. I worked with colleagues at Lawrence Livermore National Lab and at research institutes and universities around the world. Together, we found human fingerprints in the temperatures of the atmosphere, the land surface and the world’s oceans.

We detected signs of human influence on ocean heat content and salinity, snowpack depth, the timing of streamflow from snow-fed river basins, atmospheric moisture, drought behavior and clouds. We learned that human fingerprints on climate are not an isolated phenomenon. They are ubiquitous, present in dozens of independently monitored climate records.

The Department of Energy supported climate fingerprint research for over 25 years. The research survived transitions between Democratic and Republican administrations. It withstood shifts in the composition of the Senate and Congress.

But it did not survive a president who has falsely dismissed climate change as a hoax and a Chinese conspiracy. It did not survive a president who falsely asserts that science does not know the causes of climate change. It did not survive a very stable genius who considers his expertise superior to that of all scientific experts.

Nor did climate fingerprinting survive the changing of the guard at a remade Department of Energy—new leadership that walked away from the same research the DOE had funded. This seismic shift in political climate led to apprehension and even fear among my younger scientific colleagues. Some worried about green-card applications.

Could their application be adversely affected by co-authoring a paper that rebutted incorrect scientific statements made by former EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt?. Others worried about funding. Could their DOE support be cut if we continued to engage in climate fingerprint research?.

Should we simply hide and self-censor?. Should we avoid any research areas viewed with disfavor by the president of the United States?. Our climate fingerprint group did not self-censor.

Throughout the tenure of the Trump administration, we continued to study the nature and causes of climate change—research that is in the best interests of the citizens of this nation and this planet. We continued to believe that U.S. National Laboratories are an appropriate place to perform such research.

And we continued to report on our findings. To speak science to power. We did not hide.

Over the last four years, Americans have had ample opportunity to observe the consequences of willful scientific ignorance. Ignorance is toxic and fatal. It is a potent vector for the spread of the hair loss treatment propecia.

It hampers effective action on climate change, burdening our children with present and future climate disruption they did nothing to incur. Ignorance isolates us from the rest of the world. The United States is the world’s pariah nation, unwilling to accept science, unwilling to participate in international efforts to control a global propecia, and unwilling to take part in international efforts to reduce emissions of heat-trapping greenhouse gases.

Our peers in the free world view us with pity and concern. Mr. Biden, you will face two immediate, formidable challenges.

The first is “bending the curve” of hair loss treatment s. The second is to bend the curve of greenhouse gas emissions towards a more sustainable pathway—to attain an emissions curve that reduces the risks of significant climate disruption. An additional important challenge is to restore public trust in science and scientists.

You must rebuild public trust in the scientific impartiality of the Environmental Protection Agency, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Department of Energy, the Centers for Disease Control and many other federal agencies with scientific remits. You must convince the women and men working in these agencies that their new prime directive is not political loyalty to one person—the new directive is “get the science right.” You will have to inspire the disillusioned and disheartened, reverse the loss of critical expertise at key scientific agencies and make public service at these agencies an aspirational goal for the next generation of young scientists. In achieving this restoration of trust, you can count on the help of many thousands of U.S.

Scientists. I was educated in a British Army school in Germany. My education was heavy on poetry.

One poem that stuck in the sieve of my memory was by Thomas Hardy. It describes a desolate winter landscape at the tail end of the 19th century. In the cold, inhospitable countryside, against a backdrop of political instability in Europe, a solitary thrush is singing.

The poem captures the disconnect between the bleak physical setting, the portents of conflict, and the clear, beautiful birdsong. So little cause for carolings Of such ecstatic sound Was written on terrestrial things Afar or nigh around, That I could think there trembled through His happy good-night air Some blessed Hope, whereof he knew And I was unaware. Today, we live in similarly ominous times.

We wish for signs that the darkness of the last four years is lifting—for singing in the wilderness. Our “blessed hope” for a better future is invested in you.Strata. William Smith’s Geological Mapsedited by the Oxford University Museum of Natural HistoryUniversity of Chicago Press, 2020 ($65) Strata are the ribboned horizontal layers of minerals and sediment that underlie the topography of all the landmasses on the earth and have been revealed by erosion over hundreds of millions of years.

Although the practice of mapping geologic layers had begun in the mid-17th century, the science of how strata formed was still nascent. By the late 1700s self-made land surveyor-cum-geologist William Smith brought new breadth and perspective to the study in his work for a mining and prospecting firm. Captured in the many maps and sketches in this stunning collection, the fossils he systematically tagged to particular geologic strata paved the way for a more holistic view of geology that enabled other researchers and industrialists to predict the geologic makeup of large regions.

Perhaps the culmination of this pioneering work is Smith’s Technicolor map of Britain’s geologic deposits, which he labeled with the colloquial names used by miners and quarrymen of the day. Red Marl colored in peach pink, London Clay in sky gray, Chalk in chartreuse. Smith was known to take long “walkings out” in the early morning with hammer and notebook in hand, absorbing the history of the planet, where so many others had merely passed by.

Wild Thing. Space Invadersby Laura KrantzFoxtopus Ink, 2020 (free podcast) “Are there other species out there, or are we an anomaly, something special?. € asks journalist Krantz during the opening of her podcast’s 10-episode second season.

She interviews scientists involved in SETI—the search for extraterrestrial intelligence—and astronomers who recently observed the first known asteroid from beyond the solar system. She also talks to U.S. Navy pilots who claim to have seen UFOs and people who believe they have encountered aliens and travels to Colorado’s UFO Watchtower, a popular spot for those hoping to sight an unidentified flying object.

Through lively storytelling and compelling interviews, Krantz explores the science of how we might discover a new species. She also probes the philosophical questions the search raises and the cultural reasons the question fascinates us. €œWhat does it mean if we find something?.

And what does it mean if we don’t?. € —Clara Moskowitz Oliver Sacks. His Own LifeDocumentary directed by Ric Burns.

Opening date. September 23, 2020Check screenings at https://bit.ly/SeeOliverSacks Oliver Sacks was a painfully shy child who felt anguish after a brother developed schizophrenia and his mother called him an “abomination” when she learned he was gay. Fleeing to America for a medical residency, the London native indulged in prodigious amphetamine use and wondered one New Year’s Eve whether he would live another year.

Burns’s documentary, made shortly before Sacks’s death from cancer in 2015, traces the blossoming of a brilliant but troubled outsider as he elevated patient case histories to a literary art form by ceaselessly posing the same question. What is it like to be you?.

What should I watch for while taking Propecia?

Do not donate blood until at least 6 months after your final dose of finasteride. This will prevent giving finasteride to a pregnant female through a blood transfusion.

Contact your prescriber or health care professional if there is no improvement in your symptoms. You may need to take finasteride for 6 to 12 months to get the best results.

Women who are pregnant or may get pregnant must not handle broken or crushed finasteride tablets; the active ingredient could harm the unborn baby. If a pregnant woman comes into contact with broken or crushed finasteride tablets she should check with her prescriber or health care professional. Exposure to whole tablets is not expected to cause harm as long as they are not swallowed.

Finasteride can interfere with PSA laboratory tests for prostate cancer. If you are scheduled to have a lab test for prostate cancer, tell your prescriber or health care professional that you are taking finasteride.

Cost of propecia generic

Enlarge this image wikipedia reference On cost of propecia generic Dec. 14, West Virginia Gov. Jim Justice was one of cost of propecia generic the first U.S. Elected officials to get immunized against hair loss treatment.

The state has since completed a first round of shots in all long-term care facilities as well as with front-line health workers. State of West Virginia/Via AP hide caption toggle caption State of West Virginia/Via AP Nearly two weeks before most states started cost of propecia generic vaccinating anyone, pharmacist Gretchen Garofoli went to a long-term care facility in Morgantown, W.Va., on Dec. 15 and administered one of the first hair loss treatment vaccinations in the state. "Psychologically, yes, it was a beacon of hope," she says.

So far, West Virginia is cost of propecia generic outpacing the rest of the country. Having delivered treatment to health workers and completed a first round of shots at all its long-term care facilities, the state is now administering second doses and moving on to other populations, including people age 80 and over, and teachers who are 50 and older. Meanwhile, many other states are still struggling with the complex logistics of distributing the lifesaving medicines cost of propecia generic. "A lot of people are looking to us as a state, because after the first week we had, I believe, something like 90% of doses allocated to our state in arms — which was really unheard of elsewhere," says Garofoli, who is also a clinical associate professor of pharmacy at West Virginia University.

She and other health officials say there is likely a number of reasons behind their early success. For one thing, West Virginia has been charting its own path to treatment cost of propecia generic distribution. All 49 other states signed on with a federal program partnering with CVS and Walgreens to vaccinate long-term care and assisted living facilities. But those chain stores are less common in West Virginia, so the state instead took charge of delivering its treatment supply to 250 pharmacies — most of them small, independent stores.

The federal plan to rely on big chains to get the cost of propecia generic shots to long-term care facilities wasn't going to work for her state, Garofoli says. "We have a lot of independent pharmacies or smaller pharmacies that are in the more rural communities, so in order to get the treatment out to some of those areas, we needed to follow something a little bit different," she says. Many long-term care sites in the state already use local pharmacies for other treatments and medicines cost of propecia generic as well as twice-weekly hair loss testing of residents and staff. The state decided to piggyback off those existing relationships.

Because those pharmacies already had data on many patients, it was easier to begin scheduling appointments in early December, securing consent forms and matching doses to eligible patients — logistics that are confounding efforts in many other states. This scheme gave the state an early cost of propecia generic jump on most other states, says Krista Capehart, director of regulation for the state's Board of Pharmacy and chief architect of West Virginia's distribution plan. When treatments finally arrived, pharmacists were ready, and knew the number of doses they'd need. "When it got here, we already had pharmacies matched with long-term care facilities, so we were already ready to have vaccinators and pharmacists ready to go into those facilities and start providing first doses," Capehart says.

Delays in advance paperwork and the logistics of distributing these particular treatments have tripped up the pace of immunization cost of propecia generic in some other states, says Claire Hannan, executive director of the Association of Immunization Managers. State and local officials in other places may not have been able to coordinate as smoothly, she says. "They're trying to get CVS and Walgreens to cost of propecia generic come to their facilities, and CVS and Walgreens are moving at the pace they're moving."By contrast, Hannan says, West Virginia controls its own treatment supply. It's a smaller operation that can adapt and switch gears, while other states must navigate the bureaucracy of huge national chains.

"They're not as flexible, they're not as nimble as public health to make adjustments" to move people and treatment supplies around, she says. CVS and Walgreens dispute cost of propecia generic the assertion that their rollout is falling behind. "We remain on schedule, and the number of treatments we administer will continue to rise as more facilities are activated by the states," CVS CEO Larry J. Merlo said in an update posted Wednesday on the company's website.

Both chains say their immunization schedule is on track, and that they cost of propecia generic will complete initial doses for all long-term care facilities by Jan 25 — about a month after West Virginia hit its milestone. States eager to speed up the process should take note of the gubernatorial leadership in states such as West Virginia and Connecticut that are doing well, says Mark Parkinson, CEO of the American Health Care Association, a long-term care trade group and a former governor of Kansas. "What I would be doing if I was governor is I would be on speed dial with the CEOs of CVS and Walgreens every single day," he says..

Enlarge this image get more On Dec buy propecia walgreens. 14, West Virginia Gov. Jim Justice was one buy propecia walgreens of the first U.S. Elected officials to get immunized against hair loss treatment.

The state has since completed a first round of shots in all long-term care facilities as well as with front-line health workers. State of West Virginia/Via AP hide caption toggle caption State of West Virginia/Via AP Nearly two weeks before most states started vaccinating anyone, pharmacist Gretchen Garofoli went to a long-term buy propecia walgreens care facility in Morgantown, W.Va., on Dec. 15 and administered one of the first hair loss treatment vaccinations in the state. "Psychologically, yes, it was a beacon of hope," she says.

So far, West Virginia is buy propecia walgreens outpacing the rest of the country. Having delivered treatment to health workers and completed a first round of shots at all its long-term care facilities, the state is now administering second doses and moving on to other populations, including people age 80 and over, and teachers who are 50 and older. Meanwhile, many other states are still struggling with the complex logistics of distributing the lifesaving buy propecia walgreens medicines. "A lot of people are looking to us as a state, because after the first week we had, I believe, something like 90% of doses allocated to our state in arms — which was really unheard of elsewhere," says Garofoli, who is also a clinical associate professor of pharmacy at West Virginia University.

She and other health officials say there is likely a number of reasons behind their early success. For one thing, West Virginia has been buy propecia walgreens charting its own path to treatment distribution. All 49 other states signed on with a federal program partnering with CVS and Walgreens to vaccinate long-term care and assisted living facilities. But those chain stores are less common in West Virginia, so the state instead took charge of delivering its treatment supply to 250 pharmacies — most of them small, independent stores.

The federal plan to rely on big chains to get the shots to long-term care facilities wasn't going to work buy propecia walgreens for her state, Garofoli says. "We have a lot of independent pharmacies or smaller pharmacies that are in the more rural communities, so in order to get the treatment out to some of those areas, we needed to follow something a little bit different," she says. Many long-term care sites in the state already use local pharmacies for other treatments buy propecia walgreens and medicines as well as twice-weekly hair loss testing of residents and staff. The state decided to piggyback off those existing relationships.

Because those pharmacies already had data on many patients, it was easier to begin scheduling appointments in early December, securing consent forms and matching doses to eligible patients — logistics that are confounding efforts in many other states. This scheme gave the state an early jump on most other buy propecia walgreens states, says Krista Capehart, director of regulation for the state's Board of Pharmacy and chief architect of West Virginia's distribution plan. When treatments finally arrived, pharmacists were ready, and knew the number of doses they'd need. "When it got here, we already had pharmacies matched with long-term care facilities, so we were already ready to have vaccinators and pharmacists ready to go into those facilities and start providing first doses," Capehart says.

Delays in advance paperwork and the logistics of distributing these particular treatments have tripped up the pace of immunization in some other states, says Claire Hannan, executive director of the Association of Immunization Managers. State and local officials in other places may not have been able to coordinate as smoothly, she says. "They're trying to get CVS and Walgreens to come to their facilities, and CVS and Walgreens are moving at the pace they're moving."By contrast, Hannan says, West Virginia controls its own treatment supply. It's a smaller operation that can adapt and switch gears, while other states must navigate the bureaucracy of huge national chains.

"They're not as flexible, they're not as nimble as public health to make adjustments" to move people and treatment supplies around, she says. CVS and Walgreens dispute the assertion that their rollout is falling behind. "We remain on schedule, and the number of treatments we administer will continue to rise as more facilities are activated by the states," CVS CEO Larry J. Merlo said in an update posted Wednesday on the company's website.

Both chains say their immunization schedule is on track, and that they will complete initial doses for all long-term care facilities by Jan 25 — about a month after West Virginia hit its milestone. States eager to speed up the process should take note of the gubernatorial leadership in states such as West Virginia and Connecticut that are doing well, says Mark Parkinson, CEO of the American Health Care Association, a long-term care trade group and a former governor of Kansas. "What I would be doing if I was governor is I would be on speed dial with the CEOs of CVS and Walgreens every single day," he says..

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But in the 36 states that use HealthCare.gov, as well as some of the state-based exchanges, the additional subsidies will become available this Thursday, July 1. Here’s what you need to know about these additional unemployment-based subsidies. The subsidies apply to both premiums and out-of-pocket costs The unemployment-based buy genuine propecia subsidies are two-fold.

They provide full premium subsidies, which means they fully cover the cost of the benchmark plan (second-lowest-cost Silver plan) in your area. They provide the most robust level of cost-sharing reductions, which means they’ll boost the benefits of any Silver-level plan so that it’s better than a Platinum plan. Who is buy genuine propecia eligible for unemployment-based subsidies?.

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The ARP has not fixed the family glitch, so family members would also lose access to any subsidies in the exchange if they become eligible for employer-sponsored coverage that’s considered affordable for the employee. How to claim the extra subsidies HealthCare.gov will not be able to buy genuine propecia automatically update these subsidies (although that’s something that may become available later on), so you’ll need to log back into your account and update your application to activate the subsidies. You can do this through HealthCare.gov, or through an enhanced direct enrollment entity if you use one.

Some of the state-run exchanges are automatically applying the additional subsidies to accounts where applicants indicated that they’re receiving unemployment compensation this year. But if you’re in a state that runs its own exchange, it’s in your best interest to log back into your buy genuine propecia account to confirm that you’re receiving all of the benefits for which you’re eligible. If you enroll or update your account between July 1 and July 31, your new subsidies will take effect August 1.

The hair loss treatment-related special enrollment period continues through August 15 in most states, but enrollments or updates completed in August won’t take effect until September. If you’ve already got coverage through the exchange but you don’t update your buy genuine propecia application to start receiving the additional unemployment-based subsidies, you’ll be able to claim the premium subsidy on your 2021 tax return. However, there is no way to claim cost-sharing reductions after the fact.

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What you’ll buy genuine propecia pay each month The unemployment-based subsidies will cover the full cost of the benchmark plan. So you’ll have access to two Silver plans that have no premium, and you’ll likely have access to a variety of Bronze plans — and possibly some Gold plans — that have no premium. If you pick a plan that’s more expensive than the benchmark plan, including the higher-cost Silver plans, you’ll pay at least some premium each month.

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How big will your subsidy be?. You can use our subsidy calculator to see the subsidy amount that will be available to you. For people receiving unemployment compensation, buy genuine propecia the exchange will disregard any income above 139% of the poverty level for 2021.

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Most of the American Rescue Plan’s (ARP) additional premium subsidies have been available since April, and an estimated 1.65 million people have enrolled http://rlalebanon.org/how-to-buy-viagra-online/ in health plans through the exchange (marketplace) during the hair loss treatment-related special enrollment period that’s been ongoing since buy propecia walgreens February. But a major provision of the law will take effect on July 1, when HealthCare.gov makes additional subsidies available to people who have received unemployment compensation this year. DC and 14 states run their own buy propecia walgreens exchanges, and some of them had already activated the additional unemployment-based subsidies in May or June.

But in the 36 states that use HealthCare.gov, as well as some of the state-based exchanges, the additional subsidies will become available this Thursday, July 1. Here’s what you need to know about these additional unemployment-based subsidies. The subsidies apply to both premiums and out-of-pocket costs The unemployment-based subsidies buy propecia walgreens are two-fold.

They provide full premium subsidies, which means they fully cover the cost of the benchmark plan (second-lowest-cost Silver plan) in your area. They provide the most robust level of cost-sharing reductions, which means they’ll boost the benefits of any Silver-level plan so that it’s better than a Platinum plan. Who is eligible for buy propecia walgreens unemployment-based subsidies?.

The unemployment-based subsidies are available to anyone who has received or been approved to receive unemployment compensation at any time this year. (If you’re eligible to receive unemployment compensation but haven’t applied or haven’t been approved to receive it, you’re not eligible for the additional health insurance subsidies.) Eligibility for the unemployment-based subsidies includes people whose income is under the federal poverty level, as long as they’re not eligible for Medicaid. (If a person is eligible buy propecia walgreens for Medicaid or CHIP, they aren’t eligible for subsidies in the exchange.

Nothing has changed about that.) People with income under the poverty level are normally not eligible for subsidies, which means there’s a coverage gap in the states that have refused to accept federal funding to expand Medicaid. But a person who would otherwise be in the coverage gap can buy propecia walgreens receive a full premium subsidy and full cost-sharing reductions in 2021, if they receive unemployment compensation at any time during the year. CMS has confirmed that the full premium subsidies are only available if it’s a taxpayer who is receiving the unemployment compensation.

If it’s a dependent who is receiving it, the household is eligible for the cost-sharing reductions (assuming the household is otherwise also eligible for premium tax credits), but not the full premium subsidies. Even if you only received unemployment compensation for one week of 2021, you’re buy propecia walgreens potentially eligible for the enhanced subsidies for the entire year. But subsidy eligibility would end if and when you become eligible for employer-sponsored health coverage (that’s considered affordable and provides minimum value), or premium-free Medicare Part A.

The ARP has not fixed the family glitch, so family members would also lose access to any subsidies in the exchange if they become eligible for employer-sponsored coverage that’s considered affordable for the employee. How to claim the extra subsidies HealthCare.gov will not be able to buy propecia walgreens automatically update these subsidies (although that’s something that may become available later on), so you’ll need to log back into your account and update your application to activate the subsidies. You can do this through HealthCare.gov, or through an enhanced direct enrollment entity if you use one.

Some of the state-run exchanges are automatically applying the additional subsidies to accounts where applicants indicated that they’re receiving unemployment compensation this year. But if you’re in a state that runs its own exchange, it’s in your best interest to buy propecia walgreens log back into your account to confirm that you’re receiving all of the benefits for which you’re eligible. If you enroll or update your account between July 1 and July 31, your new subsidies will take effect August 1.

The hair loss treatment-related special enrollment period continues through August 15 in most states, but enrollments or updates completed in August won’t take effect until September. If you’ve already got coverage through the exchange but you don’t update your application to start receiving the additional unemployment-based subsidies, you’ll buy propecia walgreens be able to claim the premium subsidy on your 2021 tax return. However, there is no way to claim cost-sharing reductions after the fact.

So it’s important to make sure you’re enrolled in buy propecia walgreens a Silver plan as soon as possible, if you want to take advantage of that benefit. You might need to switch plans to get the full benefit You can get the additional premium subsidies applied to any metal-level plan, although your subsidy can never be more than the cost of your plan. So if you’re enrolled in a plan that’s less expensive than the benchmark plan, you might find that you’re able to upgrade to a better plan without paying any additional premium.

But you buy propecia walgreens can only get the enhanced cost-sharing reductions if you’re enrolled in a Silver plan. So if you currently have a Bronze or Gold plan, you might choose to switch to a Silver plan to get the full benefits available under the ARP. Although switching to a new plan mid-year usually means starting over with a new deductible and out-of-pocket maximum, many states and insurers are allowing enrollees to keep their accumulated out-of-pocket costs, as long as they switch to a new plan from the same insurer.

What you’ll pay each buy propecia walgreens month The unemployment-based subsidies will cover the full cost of the benchmark plan. So you’ll have access to two Silver plans that have no premium, and you’ll likely have access to a variety of Bronze plans — and possibly some Gold plans — that have no premium. If you pick a plan that’s more expensive than the benchmark plan, including the higher-cost Silver plans, you’ll pay at least some premium each month.

If you’re in a state that has additional state-mandated benefits that aren’t covered by premium subsidies, you may find that you have to pay at least a dollar or two each month in buy propecia walgreens premiums, regardless of which plan you select. What you’ll pay when you need medical care If you enroll in a Silver plan, you’ll get the full benefits of the unemployment-based subsidies, meaning that you’ll have fairly low out-of-pocket costs if you need medical care later this year. Any Silver plan you choose will have a maximum out-of-pocket of no more than $2,850 in 2021, and it’s common buy propecia walgreens to see these plans with deductibles that range from $0 to $500.

Copays for office visits and many prescriptions also tend to be fairly low. If you choose a non-Silver plan, the normal cost-sharing will apply. No matter what plan you select, your out-of-pocket maximum for in-network care won’t exceed $8,550 this year, but the specifics of the coverage buy propecia walgreens will vary considerably from one plan to another.

How big will your subsidy be?. You can use our subsidy calculator to see the subsidy amount that will be available to you. For people receiving unemployment compensation, the buy propecia walgreens exchange will disregard any income above 139% of the poverty level for 2021.

The 2020 poverty level numbers are used to determine subsidy eligibility for 2021, so you can find the poverty level for your household size, multiply it by 1.39, and enter that number into the subsidy calculator. And if you need help finding a plan, our direct enrollment entity can provide assistance. Louise Norris is an individual health insurance buy propecia walgreens broker who has been writing about health insurance and health reform since 2006.

She has written dozens of opinions and educational pieces about the Affordable Care Act for healthinsurance.org. Her state health exchange updates are regularly cited by media who cover health reform and by other health insurance experts..